Peter Grandbois


ISBN 978-1-949966-03-9     280 pages        $18.00



The President of the United States is hereby authorized and directed to designate and appoint three commissioners to negotiate with the Chippewa Indians in the State of Minnesota for the complete cession and relinquishment  of all their title and interest and such cession and relinquishment shall be deemed sufficient if made and assented to in writing  by two-thirds of the male adults  over eighteen years of age  of all the Full-blood, Chippewa Indians in Minnesota  and for the purpose of making the allotments and payments hereinafter mentioned, the said commissioners shall  make an accurate census  of each tribe or band,  classifying them  into  male  and  female  giving the exact numbers of each   and the  blood quantum  of each,  and making such census  in duplicate and the acceptance and approval of such cession and relinquishment shall be deemed  full and ample proof of the assent   of the Indians,   and shall operate as a  complete extinguishment  of the Indian title.  We, the undersigned,  do hereby certify and declare that we have  heard,  read, interpreted,  and had thoroughly explained  to our understanding,   “An act for the relief and civilization of the Chippewa Indians in the State of Minnesota”  and have accepted  and ratified the same, and do hereby  grant,  cede,  relinquish,  and convey  to the United States   all our right, title,  and interest as is not embraced in the following described boundaries to wit:  Commencing at the point  between and, thence easterly northeasterly to a point due north of a point  one mile east   from the easterly end  thence due South to the last-named point,  thence southwesterly  in a straight line  to a point thence   south to a point  from which a line  extending west passes  thence west  along said line  thence northwesterly   to the place  of beginning


                                           —White Earth, 1867

Peter Grandbois is the author of nine previous books, the most recent of which is Kissing the Lobster (Spuyten Duyvil, 2018). His poems, stories, and essays have appeared in over one hundred journals. His plays have been performed in St. Louis, Columbus, Los Angeles, and New York. He is a senior editor at Boulevard magazine and teaches at Denison University in Ohio. You can find him at www.petergrandbois.com.